“PEMF is a benefit for Mankind from infant to the geriatric.
PEMF will lead to a change in the paradigm of medicine.”
Dr. Linus Pauling – Double Nobel Prize Winner
The four parameters used to define signals are waveform (or signal shape), field strength, frequency, and resonance.
In theory these 4 components must be balanced and must be introduced into the body within an appropriate energy spectrum – a “biological window” as it were – in order to produce the optimum health-promoting effect, and to avoid negative effects. It is the difference in these signal parameters that differentiates whether an electromagnetic signal is harmful (e.g., from cell phones, microwave ovens, dishwashers, alarm clocks, or power lines) or health-promoting (e.g., pulsed magnetic fields utilized in health care and for wellness.)
A wave is a disturbance traveling through space, transferring energy from one point to the next. Those of us who studied physics or algebra are familiar with the graphic depiction of sine waves. Mathematically, sine waves can be drawn on a coordinate system consisting of “x” and “y” axis. The y-axis contains both positive and negative values. A sine wave varies cyclically both above and below the y-axis, and is symmetrical about the zero-axis (or x-axis).
The most positive value is at the “peak” of the sine wave. This is called the “peak amplitude.” This is the point of maximum displacement of the magnetic signal from zero. In bioelectromagnetic medicine, peak amplitude, or wave intensity, is usually measured in milliGausss, milliTesla or microTesla.
A magnetic wave that has alternating polarities (e.g., both positive and negative peaks (or cycles)) it is called a bipolar wave. Magnetic signal shapes and behaviors can be manipulated by altering the electrical currents that generate them. This is usually done by computerized controls. By combining cycles of electrically generated magnetic pulsations, “pulse trains” can be created which enhance biological effects of the magnetic stimulus.
The most critical component of the waveform is its rise time and fall time. According to Liboff the therapeutic value of a given pulsed signal is highly dependent on how rapidly the rise time and fall time happen. This signal characteristic cannot be underemphasized, and is perhaps the most important thing to note in our discussion about the 4 key parameters of an electromagnetic signal. The abrupt fall time represents a high peak voltage value that is responsible for ion displacement in the body. Greater ion displacement exerts a stronger biological effect. More effective than a simple sine wave, and more effective than a static magnetic, the PEMF4000 produces powerful electromotive forces in the cell membrane, inside the cells, and in the tissues of the body.
To summarize so far, the waveform, or shape of the electromagnetic signal, is something to which very close attention needs to be paid. One of the most useful waveforms created is the “saw-tooth” wave.
Both the saw-tooth signal shape and the square waveform have rise and fall times that are far more abrupt than a simple sine waveform. Again, the more abrupt the rise and fall time, the greater the biological effect. Clinicians and health technicians using this form of energy medicine have a full appreciation of the relationship between signal shape and bio-electro-magnetic interaction with the body.
The most well-known signal shape is the saw-tooth waveform introduced by Bassett in 1974. Dr. Bassett observed that changes in the electromagnetic signal induce an electrical current within the treated tissue, with maximum current being induced when the signal changes most abruptly, namely when it falls from its peak value to its lowest value (fall time). The piezoelectric current induced within bone accelerated the bone healing. As a result of Bassett’s work, this waveform has been FDA approved in the United States since 1979 for the treatment of non-union fractures and to aid in spinal fusion operations.
Field Intensity (also known as amplitude or flux density) is a quantitative description of an electromagnetic field that depends on current flow and direction. Electromagnetic intensity is described as flux (or flow) density and has been given the unit Tesla (T), after Nikola Tesla, a Serbian born American scientist who is best known for many revolutionary contributions in the field of electricity and magnetism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
The determinants of field intensity (amplitude) are the magnetic coil length (meters), the number of turns (or “windings”) of the coil, and the strength of the electrical current (Ampères) applied to the coil. Together with the induction constant and the specific resistance of the material, the field intensity (or flux density) of a magnetic field can be calculated.
Diagnostic systems such as the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) use field strengths in the Tesla range (1.5 – 3 T). The range of units has been shown below:
- 1 T = 1 000 mT (milli-Tesla)
- 1 mT = 1 000 microT (micro-Tesla)
- 1 microT = 1 000 nT (nano-Tesla)
- 1 nT = 1 000 pT (pico-Tesla)
“Gauss” is a unit of flux density still used in some parts of the world. 1 Gauss = 100 mT. The electromagnetic applications used by the PEMF4000 are at field strengths 10,000 to 1,000,000 times weaker than fields applied in FDA-approved transcranial magnetic stimulation systems and diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems.
The PEMF4000 uses extremely low field strengths. Since the target of signaling is the cell membrane, extremely low field strengths are quite adequate in producing a beneficial biological response.
This is the principle of the “biological windows,” a concept developed by Dr. Ross Adey. Dr. Adey discovered that there are a range of electromagnetic frequencies to which the body responds more readily. This principle can likewise be applied to field intensity — there is a “biological window” of electromagnetic intensities to which the human body responds best for wellness, stress reduction, enhanced oxygen delivery and overall health. The research of Goodman and Blank proved the principle of the biological window in relation to electromagnetic field intensity. They found that human cells most readily express a cell-preserving gene, heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), at 7-8 microTesla rather than a stronger field intensity above 70 microTesla.
The native language of the human cell, from an electromagnetic perspective, is a subtle whisper.
PEMF4000 is designed with this native language in mind, and use extremely low field intensities that communicate most effectively with the cell membrane. The result is the best possible wellness effect for all 75 trillion cells of the body.
In 1954 Schumann and König reported on their discovery of naturally occurring electromagnetic pulsations on the Earth. Schumann resonances are natural waves excited by lightning strikes in the cavity between the Earth’s surface and the ionosphere. In essence, lightning pumps energy into the earth-atmospher cavity, and causes it to vibrate or resonate at extremely low frequencies. The electromagnetic waves created by lightning travel around the Earth at the speed of light, reflecting from the ionosphere to earth and back again in cyclical fashion. These waves circumnavigate the globe an average of 7.83 times per second. As noted above, this frequency correlates with the average frequency of alpha brain waves in human beings.
There is an enormous range of electromagnetic frequencies either already in use or suggested for use in health care. Most of these frequencies deliver signal shapes of the simple sine wave variety. The frequencies in use range from the extremely low frequency (ELF) range of 3 to 300 Hz to the upper end as high as 50 billion Hz (50 GHz). For wellness and safety for the use of devices at home, it is recommended to stay with a device that delivers electromagnetic pulsations in the ELF range.
The basic frequency (and highest intensity) mode of Schumann resonance, or the “tonic frequency,” is 7.83 Hz. An overtone is a natural resonance or vibration frequency of a system. Those who sing or play guitar are familiar with the creation of overtones – frequencies of sound that are often created by superimposing one fundamental frequency upon another. Further resonance modes occur at 6.5 Hz intervals due to the Earth’s spherical geometry. These resonance modes (overtones) are detected in the background radio noise of the Earth’s energetic field as separate peaks around 14.3, 20.8, 27.3 and 33.8 Hz. Furthermore, these overtones seem to be essential for our bodies.
If our bodies are blocked from natural exposure to these natural waves (e.g., due to living and working in buildings constructed with concrete, steel and metal alloys, driving in cars on paved roads, and by the electro-pollution of ultra-high frequency radiations from cell phones, microwave ovens, wireless phone and computer networks, and radar/satellite signals, etc.) we are more susceptible to illness, loss of cell membrane integrity, compromised immunity, and depression. Recorded dips in the Earth’s Schumann resonances have had strong correlation to heart attacks, car accidents, and in a general increase in the death rate. (Beck 1992)
Resonance is a principle that was discovered by Galileo Galilei in 1602 while he studied pendulums. Resonance is the tendency of a system to oscillate with maximum amplitude at certain frequencies.
A common example of a resonance frequency is a playground swing, which acts as a pendulum. If you push a child on a swing in time with the natural interval of the swing (its resonance frequency) the swing will go higher and higher (it’s maximum amplitude). Applying a pushing force at any other time will interfere with (or dampen) the resonance frequency and the swing will be disrupted and go lower or stop all together. The energy absorbed by the swing is maximized when it is in phase (or “in resonance”) with the swing’s oscillations.
The cell’s of the human body vibrate, or oscillate. This can be seen in video footage red blood cells traveling through vessels under high magnification, or macrophages chasing bacteria. Electromagnetic impulses of the appropriate frequencies can produce cellular resonance – vibration at maximum amplitude. As with the cell, electromagnetic impulses produce resonant vibrations of these membrane receptors (neuropeptides) to stimulate a variety of functions within the cell. There are approximately 75 trillion cells in the human body. Each cell membrane has over 1 million neuropeptide receptors. An electromagnetic field applied within the biological window signals all of these receptors simultaneously at the speed of light. One can picture the cellular resonance produced – all cell’s vibrating and oscillating in phase. This is the essence of magnetic resonance stimulation. The profound beneficial effects in human physiology through magnetic resonance may be produced through improved intercellular communication and intracellular interactions produced through the induction of resonance in the body.
The higher the frequency, the more difficult it is to gauge the effect on the cell. Importantly, this applies to “unnatural” frequencies in the KHz and MHz range used by wireless phones, cell phones and many common household electrical devices. The new generation of magnetic field therapy systems targets the extremely low frequency range – matching known tonic oscillatory frequencies of the body’s cells. PEMF4000 are examples of the use of advanced computerized stochastic resonance modeling to achieve maximum cellular resonance.
EXAMPLES OF RESONANCE FROM SOUND AND MUSIC
Subtle energies, such as extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic waves, have profound effects on human physiology. One dramatic effect is the positive influence of pulsed magnetic fields on depleted bone density. To understand how this happens, we need to understand that we are dealing with waves. Waves have amplitude (strength) and frequency (which is determined by wavelength). Waves summate (adding together to become larger in amplitude) and they can also negate one another, thereby reducing amplitude. A simple example of this is the physics of sound waves. Harmony is the matching of two separate tones along the same wavelength. Two tones are combined. When their wavelengths and frequencies are in synchrony, we experience a pleasant sensation: a harmonic chord. Disharmony (e.g., music that is hard to listen to and “off key”) occurs when separate tones have different wavelengths and don’t match up with one another.
Carrying this musical example further, a musical “overtone” occurs when harmonies are added upon one another in perfect mathematical relation. The harmonic chord is heard, and the overtone is heard as well. The overtone is heard, but has not been sung or played by an instrument. This is an example of “resonance,” or more precisely, “stochastic resonance.” The overtone is not produced directly; it is derived through the frequency of sound waves vibrating (or oscillating) in harmony. This principle is fundamental to a proper understanding of magnetic waves and magnetic field therapy. Synchronous oscillation of electromagnetic waves is called resonance. Resonance is not produced directly, but is derived through a summation of electromagnetic vibrations within the cells of the body. The induction of cellular resonance – synchronous biomagnetic vibrations in the body – creates the biological window necessary to produce a healing response in the tissues. Using a proper dosage of pulsed magnetic waves a biological harmonic “overtone” is created and membrane receptors of poorly functioning cells in the body begin to vibrate at the frequency of health. Through a variety of physiological mechanisms circulation is improved, the cellular regenerative response is enhanced, healthy cell function is restored, and overall health is improved.
Harmonic oscillations are frequencies that develop as a multiple of the fundamental (or tonic) frequency – similar to the upper harmonics (or “overtones”) in music. For example, rectangular impulses with a fundamental oscillation of 1 Hz simultaneously create upper harmonics of 3, 5 and 7 Hz etc. Upper harmonics to the 2nd upper harmonic has the same strength as the fundamental oscillation.
In order to create resonance, the field strengths (electromagnetic amplitude) and pulse frequencies (wavelengths) utilized must match the biological window being accessed. Mathematical calculations of probability are used to determine which field strengths and amplitudes are likely to induce the greatest resonance and therefore the most beneficial biological window for magnetic resonance stimulation.
To restate the principle of resonance yet another way, if the intensities and field strengths used in applying magnetic resonance stimulation are similar to those of the biological window, a stochastic amplification creates a more profoundly beneficial biological effect. In plain English, if the frequency is right, the human body loves it and responds nicely to it!
Rectangular impulses have a steep ascending and descending phase (sharp rise time and fall time). They create harmonics at odd-numbered frequencies (e.g., 3, 5, 7 and 9 Hz). The result is that they produce greater energetic resonance of the cells and body tissues.